Bird Families

Atlantic Puffin - Facts, Size, Habitat, Nesting, Breeding

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Atlantic puffin (Fractula cortica), also known as the common puffin, is a marine bird of the Auke family. It is the only puffin native in the Atlantic Ocean; Two related species, the tufts puffin and the horned puffin, are found in the northeast Pacific, Iceland, Norway, Greenland, Newfoundland and the Faroe Islands, and west to the south of Maine, and east to parts of Great Britain. The Atlantic Puffin is most commonly seen in the Westman Islands,

Iceland. Although it has a large population and wide range, the species has declined rapidly, at least in some parts of its range, resulting in it being identified as unprotected by IUCN. On land, it is in the generally upright position of an Atlantic puffin to the sea of ​​ance, it swims on the surface and feeds mainly small fish, which it uses to dip its wings, with a dip.

This puffin has a black crown and back, pale gray cheek patches and white under part. It has been widely marked with courage in contrast with the feathers of red and black peanuts and orange legs. At the sea, in winter it melts at the throat and the color of the face of some bright color is lost, the color returns again in the spring.

The outward appearance of adult males and females is the same, although the males are usually somewhat larger. The teenager has similar plumage but her cheek patches are dark gray. The teen's brightly colored head is not ornamented, its bill is narrow and dark-gray with a yellowish-brown tip, and its legs and legs are dark as well.

Puffins from northern populations are generally larger than those in the south, and these populations are generally considered to be a separate subspecies.

By spending autumn and winter in the open sea of ​​winter northern sea, Atlantic puffin returns to coastal areas at the beginning of the breeding season in late spring. It nests in the clifftop colonies and excavates an old one where a white egg lays. Chicks mostly feed the whole fish and grow rapidly. About 6 weeks later, it is fully equipped and sails the sea at night. It swims away from the coast and does not return to the land for several years.

Description

The Atlantic puffin girdle is tightly constructed with a dense set neck and short wings and tail. It measures 28 to 30 centimeters (11 to 12 inches) in length from the tip of its stout bill to its fist-end tail. Its wings are 47 to 63 cm (19 to 25 inches) high and stand about 20 cm (8 inches) high on the ground. Men are usually a little bigger than women but they are somehow different in color.

The forehead, crown, and nape are shiny black, as are the back, wings and tail. A broad, black collar extends down the neck and neck. On each side of the head is a large, lozenge-shaped region of very pale gray. The shape of the head creates a crease extending from the eye to the most point of each patch, giving the appearance of a gray fungus.

The eye looks almost triangular, with a small, lofty area of ​​horny blue-gray skin on top and a rectangular patch on the bottom. The irises are brown or very dark blue and each has a red orbital ring. The underside of the bird is white below the breast, abdomen and tail cover.

By the end of the breeding season, the black plumage has lost its luster or may even have a slight brown color. The legs are short and return to the body well, while the bird gives its upright position when landed. Both legs and large webbed legs contrast with bright orange, sharp, black nails.

Chanchu is very distinctive. From the side, the pinch is broad and triangular, but as seen from above, it is narrow. Half of the tip is orange-red and the other half is slate gray. A yellow, chevron-shaped ridge separates the two halves with a yellow, fleshy strip at the base of the bill.

The joint of the two mandibles contains yellow, sacrificial roses. The exact proportion of the brood varies with the age of the bird. In the unfamiliar, the knife reaches its full length, but it is not as wide as an adult.

Over time, the bill deepens, bending over the edge and developing a knot at its base. As the bird ages, one or more grooves may form in the red part. The bird has a strong bite.

Characteristic bright orange bill plates and other facial features develop in the spring. At the end of the breeding season, these special coatings and additives are partially mulched. This scalp appears less wide, the scar is less bright and the base is darker gray. The eyelashes are spread out and the eyes appear round.

At the same time, feathers of the head and neck are replaced and the face becomes darker. This winter plumage is rarely seen by humans because when they leave their shelves, the birds move to the sea and do not return to the land until the next breeding season.

Adolescent birds are similar to adults in the plumage but are darker with a darker gray face and yellowish-brown feathery tips and legs. After escaping, it travels to the water and exits at sea and does not return to the land for several years. In the interim, every year, it will have a broad bill, paler face patch, and brighter legs and wings.

The Atlantic Puffin has a direct flight, usually 10 meters (33 feet) above sea level and above the surface of the water. It moves most efficiently with its webbed legs with paddling and rarely takes to the air.

It is usually muted in the sea, except for the soft drying words it sometimes flies. In the breeding colony, it is above the ground, but in its old age, there is some growing noise that has become somewhat chained up which is being revived.

Distribution

Atlantic Puffin is a bird in the cool waters of the North Atlantic Ocean. It breeds in northwestern Europe, the Arctic border, and the coast of eastern North America.

In Europe, more than 90% of the world population (4,770,000-5,780,000 pairs, 9,550,0005011,600,000 adults) and colonies in Iceland alone account for 60% of the world's Atlantic puffin. The largest colony in the West Atlantic (approximately 260,000 pairs of pairs) can be found in the Witless Bay Ecological Reserve south of St. John's, Newfoundland and Labrador.

Other major breeding places include the north and west coasts of Norway, the Faroe Islands, Shetland and Orkney Islands, the west coast of Greenland, and the coast of Newfoundland. Smaller colonies are found in the British Isles, the Murmansk region of Russia, Novaya Zemlia, Spitzbergen, Labrador, Nova Scotia, and elsewhere in Maine. The islands are particularly attractive to birds for breeding compared to mainland sites.

Behavior

Like many marine birds, the Atlantic puffin spends most of the year away from open sea land and breeds only in coastal areas. It is a mixed bird and usually breeds in large colonies.

At sea

Atlantic puffins lead to lonely existence when they go out to sea, and this part of their lives has been little studied, as the task of finding a bird in the vast ocean is thriving. At sea, the Atlantic puffin bubbles like a cork, propelling itself through the water with a strong blow to its feet and resting, and making itself visibly windy.

It spends a lot of time every day preparing to keep its feathers in proper shape and spills the oil off the gland. Its down-under plumage remains dry and provides thermal insulation.

Common with other marine birds, its upper surface is black and the bottom white. It provides camouflage, with air predators dark, watery background and unable to observe the bird against the underwater invaders, it can be mixed with the bright sky above the waves.

As it moves, Atlantic Puffin jumps loudly over the surface of the water, before launching itself into the air. The size of the wings fits with the double-use of both the top and bottom of the water and the surface area is slightly related to the weight of the bird. To maintain flight, the wings need to beat very fast at a rate of several times per second. The bird's plane is directly and low above the surface of the water and can travel up to 5 km (5 miles) per hour. Landing is awkward; It is either a wave crest or a crash in calm water, a belly flop. The Atlantic puffin has an annual hole when it is at sea. The ground birds lose their primaries one pair at a time to enable them to fly, but the puffin sheds all its primaries at one go and carries the entire aircraft for a full month or two. The bee is usually from January to March but young birds may lose their feathers a little later in the year.

Food and feeding

The Atlantic Puffin Diet contains almost all fish, although its stomach contents show that it occasionally eats shrimp, other crustaceans, mollusks, and poultry worms, especially in more coastal waters. When fishing, it swims beneath the water, using its semicircular wings to paddle and “fly” as a radar to its feet.

It swims fast and can reach a sufficient depth and can be immersed for up to a minute. It can eat shallow-bodied fish up to 18 cm (7 in), but its prey is usually small fish about 7 cm (3 in) long.

An adult bird requires an estimated 40 feedings per day - sand elves, herring, sprouts, and capelins are the most commonly used. It can catch fish in sight and swallow small fish while immersed, but larger samples are brought to the surface. It can catch a number of small fish in a sink and first hold its other, with its muscular, notched tongue in place of its aunt.

The two mandibles are wristbanded in such a way that they can be held in parallel to hold the row of fish in place, and these are also held inward-facing serrations at the edge of the chunky. It prevents it from excess salt which it consumes partly on its kidneys and partly through the nasal saline glands of its nose.

On the land

In the spring, mature birds usually return to the colony that return to the colony. Faithfulness has been seen in the release of the birds that were removed as a raid and released elsewhere. They gather for a few days in small groups over the sea before returning to the cliff-top habitats. Each large puffin colony is divided into subdivisions by physical boundaries such as Bracken or Gorse Stand.

Early arrivals control the best locations, with the most disgusting nesting sites being densely packed twelve in the slopes where the edges of the trail are easily completed. The birds are usually exclusive, but they are more a result of their loyalty to their habitat than their companions, and they often return at the same time year after year. Visitors to the colony will find that all the best sites in the nest have already been taken, so the enclosure has been pushed.

They are at risk of predation. Young birds can come to shore a month or more after mature birds and will not find any nesting sites. They do not breed until next year, although the ground cover around the colony is cut off before these subdults arrive, the number of successful nesting plants may increase.

Reproduction

It is unclear whether the Atlantic Puffin, along with its former partner, meet the shore or return to their home last year when they encountered each other during the winter alone. On the ground, they soon decided to improve and clear the old one. Often one stands outside the entrance and the other excavates, sustaining the amount of soil and pieces that stand out from the partner.

Some birds collect stems and pieces of dried grass as nesting materials, but others do not bother. Sometimes, a beakful material is taken underground, only to be brought back and thrown away. In addition to building a nest, the way birds recover other ties is through billing.

It is a practice in which the pair approach each other, everyone hangs each other's head and then tugs their buttocks together. This seems to be an important component of their court behavior as it happens again and again, and the birds continue to bloom a bit throughout the breeding season.

Atlantic puffin matures sexually at 4-5 years of age. The birds can colonize colonial nest, dig twelve in grassy clifftops or reuse existing holes, and occasionally build nests between cravings and rocks and scree. It is in competition with other birds and animals for the elderly.

It can dig its own hole or move to a pre-existing system mined by the rabbit, and it is known for trapping and dropping the original occupant. Manx sharewaters nest beneath the ground and often live in puffins as well as their own, and their old activities can be broken down into puffin's living quarters, resulting in egg damage.

They are exclusive (they are companions for life) and care for their young children. Men spend more time protecting and maintaining the nest, while the female is more involved in pruning and feeding.

Eggs started laying in more southern colonies in April but rarely occurred before June in Greenland. The female lays one single white egg per year, but if it is lost early in the breeding season, there may be another production. Synchronous ovaries of eggs are found in the older Atlantic puffins on the side.

Eggs are larger than the size of a bird, on average 61 mm (2.5 inches) in length 12 mm (7.7 in) wide and approximately g2 g (2.2 oz). The white shell is usually deprived of marks, but soon becomes dirty with mud. Both parents share the responsibility of incubation. They each have two feather-free brood patches on the bottom, where an extended blood supply provides heat for the egg.

Guardians spend most of their time sleeping on incubation duty in the dark nest chamber, smashing the head under their wings, occasionally getting out of the tunnel to dust their feathers or take a short flight to the sea.

Total fuel time is about 39-45 days. From the ground level above, the first evidence of hatching is the arrival of an adult with a burst of fish. For the first few days, the clutch may be fed to the clitoris, but the fish is then thrown to the nest floor next to the lid, which consumes them completely. The chick is covered in low black and her eyes are open and she can stand as it spreads.

Initially weighing about 42 grams (1.5 degrees oz), it grows at a rate of 10 grams (0.35 oz) per day. Initially, one or the other parent broods it, but as the hunger grows, it is left alone for a long time. Observations of a nest chamber were made from an underground enclosure with peepholes.

The chick sleeps most of the time visiting her parents and also engages herself in exercise. It rearranges its nesting material, lifts small boulders and flattens its immature wings, pulls on the edges of the expanded root, and pushes and expands against the exposed walls of the old one. It travels along the entrance or on a side tunnel to excrete faeces.

The growing chick anticipated the arrival of an adult, moving forward just before the old one arrived, but did not rise in the open air. It is reared in the nest as the adult bird brings its burden to the fish.

In the Shetland Islands, sand dunes (Ammodytes marinas) typically constitute at least 90% of all baby feeding foods. In the years in which the availability of sand eels was low, reproductive success rates declined, many goats died.

In Norway, herring (Clupier herringus) is the mainstay of the diet. When herring numbers dropped, so did the puffin number. In Labrador, puffins appeared to be more flexible and when capillin (Malotus villosus) availability of the main baitfish decreased, they were able to adapt and feed the rats of other predator species.

The rats take 34 to 50 days to refine, which depends on their food supply. The entire colony may experience a prolonged extended period of years in shortage of fish, but the normal range is 38 to 44 days, whereby the rats will reach about 75% of their mature body weight.

The stool may come in at the entrance to the anus, but usually does not appear in the open area and seems to be mildly resistant until it is almost fully furnished. Although the supply of fish by the elderly has decreased over the past few days spent in the house, chickens cannot be abandoned as is the case at Manx shearwater.

At various times, an older child may be seen nesting after leaving. For a few days underground, the raft comes down and the juvenile plumage is exposed. It has a relatively small beak and has a dark complexion with legs and feet and lacks white patches on adult faces. The raid eventually leaves its nest at night, with the lowest risk of victimization.

At this point when it appears, it rises from the old, usually for the first time, and walks, runs, and flaps out to sea. It still cannot fly properly, so the rise of a mountain is in danger; When it reaches the water, it paddles to the sea and is probably 3 kilometers (2 miles) away from the shore during the day. It does not merge with other types of people and does not come back for 2-5 years.

Watch the video: Stunning video of Atlantic Puffins. May 18, 2020 (March 2021).

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