Bird Families

Great Black Backed Gull Description and Facts

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The great black backed gull is an ocean bird that resides in the cold region, found in a variety of coastal habitats, as well as rocky and sandy coasts and estuaries. The great black-backed gull also lives in inland marshy habitats, such as lakes, ponds, waterlogged rivers, wet fields, and moorland where food is abundant.

Great black-backed gulls (Laras marinas), some are mistakenly called larger black-backed gulls, are the largest members of this family.

It breeds on the European and North American coasts and islands of the North Atlantic and is fairly feathery although some move south or inland to larger lakes or reservoirs.

The adult great black-backed neck has a white head, neck and underparts, gray wings and back, pink legs and yellow bills.

Description

It is the largest gall in the world, considerably larger than the herring gull (Larus argentus). A number of other gulls, including the Palace gull (Ichthyitis Ichthyitis) and Glucus gull (Laras hyperborus), match the size of this species.

Great Black-Backed Gull has a wingspan of 1.5-11 meters (4 feet 11 - 5 feet 7 inches) long and weighs 0.75-2.3 kg (1.7-5.1 pounds) in length.

In a sample of 20 adults in the North Atlantic, men found an average of 5 grams (1.8 pounds) and females an average of 5 grams (8.2 pounds).

Some adult gulls with fishery access to the North Sea can weigh about 2.5 kg (5.5 lbs) and an average of 1.96 kg (4.3 lbs).

An exceptionally large glucose gull is found that surpasses any famous fine-blacked gull, although the species is usually somewhat smaller.

The great black-backed gull pressed on, presenting with a huge and powerful bill.

The standard measurements are: the bill is 5.4 to 7.25 cm (2.13 to 2.85 inch), the wing chord is 44.5 to 53 cm (17.5 to 20.9 inches) and the tarsus is 6.6 to 8.8 cm (2.6 to 3.5 inches).

The adult black-backed gull is quite distinct in adults, as no very large black gull on its upper wings is commonly seen in the North Atlantic.

In other white-headed North Atlantic gulls, the mantle is usually of a light gray color, and in some species, it is light powdery or even pink.

It is gray-black on the wings and back, distinctive on the wings and has a white “mirror” in contrast.

The legs are pink and the bill is yellow or yellow-pink and some orange or red near the tip of the low bill. In adults, the lower black-backed gull (L. fuscus) is apparently smaller, usually about half the weight of a great black-back.

The lower black back has yellow legs and a coating that can range from slate-gray to brown, but like the larger species, it is never dark. Such as Slaty-backed (L. scittensis), western (L. acidentalis) and calp gull ( L. Demonicus).

Teenagers younger than one-year-old have crispy, black-brown upper parts, head and under parts gray-brown, and a neat wing pattern.

The face and nape are feathers and feathers on the wings are black-brown. The teenager's tail is stained with a zigzag bar and ankle, and white with a broken black color band near the dog.

The teenager's bill is brownish-black with a white tip and some pink-toned legs are dark blue-gray. At young age, the gray-brown color gradually fades to a more inverted plumage, and the bill turns black before the growing pal.

By the third year, the young gulls are a striker, the appearance of the adult is beautiful.

Version It takes them at least four years to reach maturity, the development of this species is somewhat slower than other large cheeks.

The call is a deep “laughed” cry, ka-ga-ga, the first note is sometimes drawn in an almost bovid-like sound. The vocals are uniquely deep compared to the other flower species.

Distribution and Accommodation

This species is found in the extreme northwestern part of Russia, coastal areas along the coast of the Baltic Sea, coastal areas of northwestern France, the UK and Ireland.

Across the northern part of the Atlantic, these gulls are distributed in Iceland and southern Greenland and Canada and the Atlantic coast of the United States.

Although there was only one non-breeding visitor south of Canada in the eastern United States, the species has spread to include several colonies in the New England states and now has species in the south as far as North Carolina.

Breeders will migrate south in harsh environments, moving from the Baltic Sea to southern Portugal in the winter on the northern coasts of Europe and coastal Florida to North America.

During winter in the Baltic Sea, the bird is usually near the border of the ice.

The sea to the north of the Aland Islands is often frozen all the way from Sweden to Finland, and then the bird moves to open water.

Exceptionally, the species can live as far south as the Caribbean and off the coast of North-South America.

The great black-backed gull is found in a variety of coastal habitats, such as rocky and sandy shores and alligators, as well as lakes, ponds, rivers, wetlands, and moorlands.

They are usually found within striking distances of a large body of water that spans the interior.

Currently, it is a common topic of inactive dumps both on the coast and relatively far inland, that the species make extensive use of dredge spoil, which, in the state of New Jersey, features their most common nesting sites.

It usually breeds in free or larger accessible areas at risk between ground predators, such as vegetable islands, sand dunes, flat-top stacks, building roofs and sometimes salt marsh island bushes. In winter, great black-backed gulls often travel to feed the sea.

Diet

Great black-backed roses are opportunistic feeders, top predators, and very intriguing. They will investigate any small organisms they encounter and will easily eat whatever they can consume.

They get the majority of their food intake from scavenging, refusing, mostly provided directly by humans, locally comprising more than half of their diet.

The spread of garbage or removal dumps has become attractive to it and to all other non-specialized flower species in its range.

However, apparently, to try to observe how much time they spent in the unacceptable dumps in Massachusetts, the great black-backed gulls were actively dressed 19% of their time there, eating less garbage than most other cheeks and spending most of their time. Roasting or loafing time

Like most reefs, they also catch fish with some regularity and will easily capture any fish smaller than those found near the surface of the water.

Whether caught or eaten after death or received an injury from another source, the stomach contents of the great black-backed gulls usually show fish as the primary food.

In Sable Island, Nova Scotia, fish contained about 25% of the digestive tract, but 96% of juvenile registrations were made by fish.

Similarly, on the Great Island of Newfoundland, 25% of the contents of the stomach were fish, but 8% was regular fish.

The most commonly reported fishes in Nova Scotia and Newfoundland are Capelin (Malotus villosus), Atlantic cod (Gadas morhua), Atlantic tomcod (Microgadus tomcod), Atlantic mackerel (Scombar scumbrous), Atlantic herpes loops and Klops herring) Other prey are often present in various squid, Jonah crabs (Cancer borealis), rock crabs (Cancer euroratus), sea urchins, green crabs (Carcinus maineas), starfish (Asterius burrosi and Ascarius rubens), and other eucalypts.

From observations in northern New England, 23% of the observed victims were echinoderms and 63% were crustaceans.

Unlike most other Laras cheeks, they are extremely predatory and often hunt and kill any prey smaller than themselves, usually behaving more like a rapper than a normal lurid cheek.

Lack of razor-sharp tension and twisting, tossing a Raptor's knife, great black-backed gulls have aggressiveness, physical strength, and endurance while attacking.

When invading other animals, they usually attack nests, nests, or livestock, probably for the most part, but include smaller species as well as eiders, gannets, and various alcids.

In Newfoundland and Nova Scotia, 10% of the stomach of the black-backed gulls was made by birds, while another 17% of the stomach material was made by terrain eggs only.

Adult or adult juveniles of different bird species have also been attacked.

When attacking other flying birds, black-backed large gulls often chase after them on wings and attack them with their bills, hoping to make the other bird fall open, or simply exhausted.

They can kill healthy adult birds weighing at least 50g but can exclusively take young females of larger birds such as Common Eder (Sommeteria molysima) and Cormorant.

They will also catch flying passerines, which they usually notice when the little birds are tired of shifting and swallow it immediately.

Feed the land animals, including rats (Retus SSPs) with the great black-backed cow trash dumps, and even the sick lambs (Ovis sheep).

An adult Great Black-Backed Gull stole a carcass from a teenager of the same species, then swallowed it whole.

Most foods are completely consumed, including most fish and even other galls.

When foods are too big to consume at once, the bills are sometimes broken until, like some other gulls, mollusks or other hard-surfaced foods, such as eggs, they will fly into the air and rocks or hard to open.

Throw it to the earth. When available, alternative foods including berries and insects are eaten.

Great Black-Backed Gull easily uses simple food sources, including the cham line created by sea boats.

They are skilled kleptoparasites who will effortlessly hunt prey caught by pirate fish and other birds and dominate other cheeks as they face them.

In the Torn colonies of coastal Maine, American herring gulls (L. smithsonians) occasionally attacked nests and flying turns but in most cases, their arrest was immediately pirated by black-backs.

In one observation, an adult Great Black-back was spotted stabbing a female Peregrine Falcon (Falco peregrinus), a newly caught gadwall (Anas strapira).

In other cases, a terrific backdrop to the third year has been fought by stopping the killing of an adult female North Goshawk (Aspiter genitalis), though Goshak tried to hit the gull before leaving.

Due to the method of intimidating them when encountering other water and rammed birds, the species has been referred to as “merciless oppressor.”

Naturally, these gulls are attracted to the surface activity of large marine animals, from Atlantic bluefin tuna (Thunnas thynnas) to humpback whales (Megaptera novanglia) to surface-driven fishing by these animals.

Breeding

Great Black-Backed Gull species breeds singly or in small colonies, sometimes in the middle of the Laras argentatus colony. Young adult couples are formed in March or April.

The following spring the same birds usually make a pair, meeting in the previous year's nest. If one bird is not present, the other bird begins to look for a new companion. Usually not a single bird breeds during that season.

These often form a lined nest on the ground above rocky stacks, fallen logs or any other obstructive object that can protect the material from eggs.

Usually, several nest scrapes are made after parents are considered the best, and then lined with objects such as grass, seaweed or rope or plastic. In urban environments, roofs are often recycled in previous years, while roofing houses.

The female Great Black-Backed Gull lays three eggs, usually from late April to mid-June. When only two eggs are found in a nest, the cause is almost always seen that one egg has been destroyed for one reason or another.

It takes about a week for a woman to produce three eggs and the fuel does not start until she has three eggs. So the three bullets were spread on the same day.

The bird usually succeeds in bringing three chicks.

Eggs are dark-stained and stained greenish-brown. Both parents participated in the incubation phase, which lasted approximately 20 days. At this point, the birds try not to catch sight and remain silent.

The breeding couple is devoted parents, who both nest children and guard the nest and collect food.

Young black-backed gulls leave the nest at age 50 and may stay with their parents for about six months, although most newborns choose to mate with other immature gulls in search of food by fall.

The Great Black-Backed Gull reaches reproductive maturity after attaining adult plumage at four years of age, although they do not successfully breed until they are six years old.

Longevity and mortality rates

It is a relatively long-lived bird. The maximum recorded age of the wild great black-backed gull is 2 age.

This species is rarely kept in captivity, but domesticated European herring gulls survive for more than 3 years, and large birds can usually outrun small ones.

Death usually occurs in the early stages of life when severe weather (including floods) and starvation can threaten predators as well.

A Norwegian study found that great black-backed gulls were the fifth-highest frequency hunting item for white-legged e-gulls, and gulls were prone to manipulate these huge e-gulls.

A fierce squua (Stercorreus squua) was pictured in Scotland for a failed attempt to kill the second or third year's great black-backed gull. In Norway, great black-backed herds have also been reported to be victims of the Eurasian agglubber (Bubo Bubo).

Killer whales (Orkinas orca) and sharks have also been reported to be victims of sea adult and juvenile birds.

In some biomes, where large gulls are absent, great black-backed gulls may be considered predators at the top.

Condition

The Great Black-Backed Gull was cut for its feathers, which were used in the hat-making trade, and as a result of this exploitation, the species was sacrificed from large parts of its range.

Today, although it is adaptable to human presence and the use of the urban environment as an artificial nesting site, great black-backed gulls have increased rapidly in number and range.

It is now a widespread and abundant species in its range and its numbers have risen to such high levels in some regions that it is often seen as an insect species, especially near airports where it is at risk of collision with aircraft and in some coastal areas where it is sometimes as rare as the Atlantic puffin.

Hunting or hunting of marine birds, presumably conservationist intervention The. The growth and spread of the great black-backed gulls have been blamed for increasing winter fisheries activity in the North Sea.

Although there is no major threat to Great Black-Backed Gull , high levels of toxic contaminants, which are fed with contaminated prey, are often found in individuals and eggs, which reduce reproductive success.

Breeding also hinders human instability, causing the eggs to become abandoned, leaving them vulnerable to exposure and predation.

Watch the video: Great Black-backed Gull eats Ruddy Turnstone (March 2021).

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