Bird Families

Types of diving ducks photo and name

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Diving waterfowl got a common name due to the special method of obtaining food, mainly of animal origin, from the bottom through diving. Insect larvae, small crustaceans, molluscs serve as food. The habitat is the northern hemisphere. A particularly large and diverse population of diving ducks is common in North America.


The habitat of diving ducks

The tribe Diving ducks includes duck - Aythya and diving - Netta. Common features are the medium size of stocky birds with a large head. All of them, except teals, are distinguished by their colorful plumage. The hind toes of short dark gray legs shifted backward are equipped with leathery lobes. To take off from the surface of the water, diving ducks need a running start.

They are considered valuable commercial game, although meat with the smell of fish, due to the specific nutrition of ducks, is not as tasty as that of mallards, and requires special processing. The duck is boiled twice, draining the water completely. Only then is the meat ready for further processing. It can be fried, cutlets, stewed, smoked.

Experienced hunters know that not all types of diving ducks are allowed for shooting, so they must accurately identify a specific protected species in the flock so as not to fall into it. They prefer to build nests near water in tall grass that shelters them from predators.

An unusual documentary about ducks

Taxonomy

The phylogenetic position of species from this genus is considered one of the most controversial among all modern groups of birds. One of the obstacles preventing ornithologists from compiling a complete picture of the evolutionary development of river ducks is the fact that the divergence of the two main groups of the genus - mallards and teals - occurred relatively recently (approximately in the second half of the Pleistocene) and in a very short period of time. In addition, it is likely that frequent hybridization between these birds, especially within subgenera, played an important role in the evolution of river ducks. Molecular studies by analyzing mtDNA sequences create additional confusion, showing dubious results for relationships between species.

However, there are some major treasures that can be identified. For example, this is the classic subgenus mallard uniting Anas

is a monophyletic (in a broad sense, not holophyletic) group, which does not raise questions among modern taxonomists. On the other hand, the phylogenetics of teals looks very confusing.

At the present time, it is more or less becoming obvious that the wiggles have a more distant relationship to other real ducks than the mallards, and should be brought into a separate genus. The same applies to the kloktun, to the teal-cracker, to the "black-capped" group Punanetta

, and shirokoskam and other birds with blue wings. In relation to other species, sviyazi have common morphological and behavioral characteristics, however, the difference in their mtDNA of two mitochondrial protein-coding genes - cytochromes b (cyt
b
) and the 2nd subunit of nicotinamide dehydrogenase (ND2) also suggests that their status should be increased to a separate genus
Mareca
(also including the gray duck and killer whale).

The proposed list is suggested based on morphological, molecular and behavioral characteristics.

  • Possible genus N.N.
    Kloktun (
    Anas formosa
    )
  • Possible genus Querquedula
    Teal cracker (
    Anas querquedula
    )
  • Possible genus Punanetta
    Multicolored teal (
    Anas versicolor
    )
  • Teal pune (Anas puna
    )
  • Spotted teal (Anas hottentota
    )
  • Possible genus Spatula
    Blue-winged teal (
    Anas discors
    )
  • Brown teal (Anas cyanoptera
    )
    Anas cyanoptera borreroi
    - possibly extinct at the end of the 20th century
  • South American broadtail (Anas platalea
    )
  • Cape shirokosnoska (Anas smithii
    )
  • Australian broad-bearer (Anas rhynchotis
    )
  • Wide-nose (Anas clypeata
    )
    • Possible genus Mareca
      Sviyaz (
      Anas penelope
      )
    • † Amsterdam Flightless Witch (Anas marecula
      )
    • American Wig (Anas americana
      )
    • Sumptuous Wiggle (Anas sibilatrix
      )
    • Subgenus Chaulelasmus
      Gray duck (
      Anas strepera
      )
      Anas strepera couesi
      - became extinct in the second half of the 19th century
    • Subgenus Eunetta
      Killer whale (
      Anas falcata
      )
    • Subgenus Dafila
      Pintail (
      Anas acuta
      )
    • Kerguelen pintail (Anas eatoni
      )
      Anas eatoni eatoni
    • Anas eatoni drygalskii
  • Yellow-billed pintail (Anas georgica
    )
      Anas georgica georgica
  • Anas georgica niceforoi
    - became extinct in the 1950s
  • White-cheeked pintail (Anas bahamensis
    ) (formerly
    Poecilonetta
    )
  • Red-billed pintail (Anas erythrorhyncha
    ) (formerly
    Poecilonetta
    )
  • Cape teal (Anas capensis
    ) (formerly
    Nettion
    )
    • Subgenus Nettion
      Indian Ocean treasure Madagascar teal (
      Anas bernieri
      )
    • † Mauritian duck (Anas theodori
      )
    • Gray teal (Anas gibberifrons
      )
      Anas gibberifrons remissa
      - extinct (circa 1959)
  • Anas gracilis
    (previously as part of
    Anas gibberifrons
    )
  • Chestnut Teal (Anas castanea
    )
  • Green winged treasure
      Teal Whistle (Anas crecca
      )
  • Green-winged teal (Anas carolinensis
    ) (previously included in
    Anas crecca
    )
  • Yellow-billed Teal (Anas flavirostris
    ) Andean teal (
    Anas (flavirostris) andinum
    )
  • New Zealand treasure
      Auckland teal (Anas aucklandica
      )
  • Brown teal (Anas chlorotis
    ) (previously included in
    Anas aucklandica
    )
  • McCurry Islands Teal (Anas
    cf.
    chlorotis
    ) - fossil species
  • Campbell Teal (Anas nesiotis
    ) (previously included in
    Anas aucklandica
    )
    • Subgenus Melananas
      African Black Duck (
      Anas sparsa
      )
    • Subgenus Anas
      African species ("
      Afranas
      ») Madagascar mallard (
      Anas melleri
      )
    • Yellow-nosed mallard (Anas undulata
      )
  • American treasure
      Ocellated mallard (Anas fulvigula
      ) (sometimes as part of
      Anas platyrhynchos
      )
      Anas fulvigula fulvigula
      (sometimes as part of
      Anas platyrhynchos
      )
  • American Black Duck (Anas rubripes
    ) (sometimes as part of
    Anas platyrhynchos
    )
  • Mexican mallard (Anas diazi
    ) (sometimes as part of
    Anas platyrhynchos
    )
  • Pacific treasure
      † Mariana Mallard (Anas (platyrhynchos) oustaleti
      ) (sometimes seen as a subspecies
      Anas superciliosa
      )
  • Hawaiian mallard (Anas wyvilliana
    ) (sometimes as part of
    Anas platyrhynchos
    )
  • Philippine mallard (Anas luzonica
    )
  • Laysan mallard (Anas laysanensis
    ) (sometimes as part of
    Anas platyrhynchos
    ) † Lisyanskaya mallard (
    Anas
    cf.
    laysanensis
    ) - hypothesis, has died out since 1845.
  • Gray mallard (Anas superciliosa
    )
  • Unclear status
      Mallard (Anas platyrhynchos
      )
  • Spotted mallard (Anas poecilorhyncha
    )
  • Anas (poecilorhyncha) zonorhyncha
    - sometimes viewed as a subspecies
    Anas superciliosa
    • Previously considered as part of the genus Anas
      Bronze-winged duck (
      Speculanas specularis
      )
    • Crested duck (Lophonetta specularioides
      )
    • Striped duck (Salvadorina waigiuensis
      )

    Red-nosed duck

    This is one of the representatives of the genus Diving of the tribe Diving ducks. The red-nosed duck has a body length of up to 55 cm with a weight of up to 1.5 kg. In the spring, males stand out with brown-red plumage on the head, which seems large due to the dense crest of elongated feathers located on it.

    The upper part of the torso is painted in dark brown, in harmony with the black shiny belly and the same shade of the back. The sides and mirrors of the drake are white. The colorful image is complemented by bright red legs and a beak.

    The female cannot boast of a crest. She is painted in a grayish-brown tone, having a light gray abdomen and the same shade of the cheek. The ash gray mirrors do not stand out much. The legs and beak are brown. The summer male practically does not differ from the duck, retaining only the most expressive feature - the crest and white mirrors.

    The chick appears with a yellow belly and a greenish-gray upper body.

    These representatives of diving ducks do not dive in search of food, but turn upside down, diving only with their front part. They take off from the water surface hard enough, pushing off with their feet. They often come out of the water ashore.

    Representatives of the genus

    Bird diving represented by 4 groups:

    • dives,
    • blacken,
    • marble teal,
    • pink-headed duck.

    They all have a very attractive appearance. Diving ducks are often kept in zoos.

    Diving

    The dives are of average size and weight from 800 g to 1.5 kg. The duck is slightly smaller than the common mallard, and this allows it to be classified as miniature.

    Drakes are somewhat larger than females and have more elegant plumage. The color of females is usually very modest and inconspicuous. There are 3 types of dives.

    Red-eyed

    The name of the bird is associated with the color of the iris of the eye.... The bird lives in South America and, as an introduced and well established bird, in Central Africa below the Sahara Desert.

    Red-eyed dives make their nests in dense thickets. They hatch eggs for 26 days.

    The color of the plumage of the bird is as follows:

    • head - black plumage with a greenish tint,
    • chest - purple color,
    • the rest of the body is brown with olive tint.

    Young drakes, like females, have gray plumage. The color of the plumage in males changes color at the time of puberty.

    White-eyed duck


    White eyed dives

    The white-eyed dive belonging to the genus Cerneti is also called black-eyed or white-eyed. These diving ducks, with a body length of up to 40 cm and a weight of about 0.5 kg, have a fairly high landing on the water surface, while keeping their tail slightly raised. They are skilled divers, but for flight they rise with difficulty.

    The male in the spring is colored differently: blackish-reddish belly, brownish-reddish head, goiter and neck, black uppertail with back, white speculum, undertail and middle part of the breast. This gorgeous outfit fades in summer. Ducklings are characterized by black-painted sides, back and abdomen. They have a yellowish tinge on the sides of the head and a whitish throat stands out.

    Arriving at nesting sites, white-eyed divers settle in river floodplains, and also prefer deep lakes, where there is large quantities of aquatic vegetation.

    These amazing ducks can build a nest on hummocks, in reed beds, on floating logs. The female lays 7 to 12 greenish eggs.

    Features of diving ducks

    Unlike river ducks, diving ducks - these include ducks, gogols, long-tailed ducks and scoops and other bird species - are characterized by a number of their own characteristics, which are directly related to the life of these birds in open and deep water bodies. So, these birds have to get food mainly by diving, therefore, it is not surprising that they have a compact and muscular body, as well as dense plumage. The neck of such ducks is thick and short, the head is angular and large. Their legs are set far back and have well-developed swimming membranes, which are so necessary for these birds. It is noteworthy that they even have a small leathery blade on their hind toes, which helps a novice hunter to distinguish a diving duck from an ordinary one. The wings of such a diving duck are short, the tail seems to be chopped off and has underdeveloped webs. However, if we consider the appearance of such diving ducks, such as moths, scoops and duck, then their tail has a wedge-shaped shape and elongated middle feathers make it voluminous. But in the long-tailed duck, especially in the spring feather, the central pair of tail feathers is 10 centimeters longer than the rest of the plumage.

    Where do diving ducks live?

    This is what the black sea looks like

    Water is the native element of diving ducks. They are skilled divers, excellent swimmers and in terms of these characteristics they are in many ways superior to their other river cousins. Therefore, it is not surprising that an experienced hunter, even from afar, will be able to distinguish the silhouette of a diving duck from an ordinary river duck. A clue to him will be such signs as the body of a duck, deeply submerged in water, and a tail that touches the surface of such water. The only exception is the duck ducks - their tail sticks up, and the long-tailed duck has elongated tail feathers that rise above the water.

    Diving ducks move very poorly on land, therefore, they do it extremely rarely. Only when the nesting period begins, they are ready to make a short journey from the water to their nest and back. It is noteworthy that

    if you shoot a dive, then he will never come ashore, but on the contrary will try to go into open water, where he will try to escape, constantly going under water.

    They do not like diving and flying through the air. They are simply not adapted for this. Still, a massive and heavy body, short wings - all this is not created for flying, therefore, they have to scatter in the water, often paddling with their paws, in order to rise even a little into the air. When a diving duck took off, it flies quickly, often flaps its wings, but it does not cope well with the task of maneuverability.Having taken a certain direction and choosing a course for itself, a dive can hardly turn off it, and at the same time it always inevitably loses in speed.

    Diving ducks feeding

    The feeding of diving ducks is closely related to deep water. So, even a depth of 5 meters is not an obstacle for them. Most of these birds prefer to eat animal food - molluscs, caddis larvae, dragonflies and other insects. They also love to feast on bloodworms, small crustaceans, even fish. Often, dives supplement their diet with plant food - algae, but its percentage in their diet depends on the type of diving ducks themselves and on the nature of the reservoir in which they live.

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