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Arunas - articles on ornithology

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Goldfish (Carassius auratus auratus)
Linne, 1758.

Family carp (Cyprinidae).

The first information about the goldfish comes from China and dates back to the period between 968 and 975.
Length up to 30 cm. Less in the aquarium.
The body is elongated in length, elliptical, with a sharp snout, flattened laterally. The dorsal fin is long, begins in the middle of the body, the caudal fin is two-lobed, the anal fin is short, and is referred to the end of the body.
The back is red-golden, the side is golden, the belly is yellowish. The fins are red, reddish, or yellowish.
There are also pale pink, red, white, black to blue-black, yellow to brown and spotted specimens.
The labor of Chinese and Japanese breeders has produced a large number of varieties of goldfish. Some of them are described below.

Buyvologravka or Ranchu.

The body is short, rounded, the posterior part of the dorsal profile forms an acute angle with
the upper outer edge of the caudal fin. On the top of the head, there is a massive build-up of thickened skin that begins to form at 3 months of age. The dorsal fin is absent.
bifurcated tail.
In Japan, red specimens are considered the best. There are also fish of red color with white spots on the body, with a white body, a shiny red snout and fins, or with a red operculum.

Water Eyes.

The body is ovoid, with a low back, rounded, the profile of the head merges into the profile of the back. The eyes appear as fluid-filled bubbles hanging down on either side of the head. The dorsal fin is absent. The rest of the fins are paired. The tail is two-bladed, does not hang down.
The color is different: orange, silver, brown.

Veil tail.

The body is ovoid, rounded, the profile of the head merges smoothly into the profile of the back. The dorsal fin is erect and its anterior rays are equal in length to the body height. The anterior rays of the pelvic fin are of the same size. The tail and anal are paired. Caudal flat, without lobes, falling down in folds, almost equal to body length.
The color is different.

Pearl.

The body is rounded, the back is low, the profile of the head smoothly turns into the profile of the back, the scales are domedly raised.
The dorsal fin is erect, unpaired.
The rest of the fins are paired. The first rays of the dorsal are 1/2 the height of the body, the ventral rays are the same height. The caudal is two-bladed, cut out 1/3 of its length, does not hang down.
The body is golden or orange in color, with large, bulging, pearl-like scales.

The body is elliptical, elongated. Caudal fin longer than 3/4 body length, two-lobed with a deep cut.
The color is different.

Red Riding Hood.

The body is round, the back is low. The dorsal fin is absent.
The fins are bifurcated. The caudal is two-lobed, with rounded edges, hanging down.
The color is silvery with a metallic sheen, the upper half of the head is orange or red.

Lionhead.

The body is ovoid, round, the back is low. The head and operculum are covered with a growth similar in structure to a raspberry berry. The dorsal fin is absent. All fins are paired. The caudal two-bladed, the edge of the upper blade should not fall below the dorsal line.
The color is different.

Chinese lion head, red.

The body is ovoid, round, the back is low.
The dorsal fin is absent. There is a massive translucent growth on the top of the head and on its sides. The caudal fin is forked with 4 processes.
The body is golden or light red, the growth is intense red.

Heavenly Eye.

The body is ovoid, rounded, the back is low, the profile of the head merges smoothly into the profile of the back. The eyes protrude above the head and are directed upward. The dorsal fin is absent.
All fins are paired. The caudal two-bladed, the edge of the upper blade should not fall below the dorsal line.
The color is different.

The body is ovoid, rounded, the back is low, the profile of the head merges smoothly into the profile of the back, growths on both sides of the head. The dorsal fin is absent. All fins are paired. The caudal two-bladed, the edge of the upper blade should not fall below the dorsal line.
The color is different.

There are other color options for the telescope.

The body is ovoid, rounded, the back is low, the height of the body is more than 1/2 of the length, the profile of the head smoothly turns into the profile of the back. Eyes on symmetrically located cylindrical or conical outgrowths protrude on both sides of the head. The dorsal fin is vertical. The rest of the fins are paired. Caudal flat, hanging downward, longer than 3/4 of body length.

The Riukin is a Japanese goldfish breed that is considered the prototype of the veiltail.
The body is very short, ovoid, swollen. The ratio of body height and length is from 3/4 to 1. A characteristic feature of the breed is a “hump” starting from the head to the dorsal fin. The head is large, with slightly enlarged eyes. The color can be different - red, two- and three-color, pink, white, chintz.
The caudal fin is bifurcated, widely spread, and should be 3/4 to 1.5 times the length of the body. The angle between the upper and lower lobes of the caudal fin should be 90º or more. The dorsal fin is high (about 1/3 of the body height and more), firmly standing. Other fins are paired, of moderate length, slightly rounded at the ends.

A characteristic feature of the oranda is fatty growths on the head and the upper part of the operculums, often in combination with beautiful veil fins. The growths can have different shapes and colors, cover both the upper part of the head and the entire head, sometimes even completely covering the fish's eyes.
The body is elongated or very short, ovoid, swollen. The ratio of height to body length is from 1/2 to 3/4. The color can be red, orange, black, pink, two-tone or chintz. The growths on the head often contrast in color with the body.
The head is massive, the growths are usually symmetrical. The caudal fin is bifurcated, different in length (from 1/2 to 1.5 body length), the lobes are rounded at the edges. The dorsal fin is of medium height (from 1/3 to 1/2 of the body height); other fins are paired, well spread, slightly rounded at the ends.

Chen cites the following differences in the traits of the goldfish common in China:
1. Coloring: gray, red, yellow, black, white, spotted, blue, purple, translucent and speckled.
2. Body shape: narrow and long, round and short (ovoid).
3. Dorsal fin: normal, rudimentary, absent, long, short.
4. Caudal fin: simple, bifurcated, simple at the top and bifurcated at the bottom, drooping, enlarged triple, long, medium length, short.
5. Anal fin: simple, bifurcated, simple above and bifurcated below, rudimentary, absent, long, short.
6. Head shape: normal, narrow, wide, lion-like, goose-like.
7. Eyes: normal, small, like a dragon's, celestial eye, watery eyes.
8. Scales: normal opaque, translucent, pearlescent.
9. Gill covers: normal, turned outward.

Peaceful, calm fish, like to dig in the ground, demanding high oxygen content in the water. May be kept with other calm fish.
The size of the aquarium is chosen at the rate of 10 liters of water per 1 fish with aeration and 15 liters without it. Plants in places (but not with small leaves, dirt, raised from the ground by fish during digging, settles on them), rounded stones, driftwood.
Water: 15-24 ° С, dH 8-25 °, pH 6-8, daily change of 1/10 volume, aeration, filtration (biological filter is desirable). Food: live, vegetable, substitutes.

The female, ready for spawning, has a thick belly filled with caviar. The male has a spawning rash in the form of small grains on the operculum, and he swims behind the female, holding on to her ovipositor.
2-3 males and 1 female are planted for spawning at the age of 2-3 years, which are kept separately for 2-3 weeks before. Spawning aquarium with a length of 80 cm with sandy soil, sloping to one side, and with a bush of small-leaved
plants. The water is fresh, the level is 20-25 cm. For fish of breeding varieties, the temperature is 24-25 ° C. The female lays up to 10 thousand eggs. After spawning, the fish are removed and the substrate with eggs is transferred to an incubator, preferably illuminated by the sun. The temperature in the incubator should be constant, fluctuations of 5 ° C are fatal for eggs. The incubation period is 2-4 days, the fry swim in 2-5 days. Starter feed: live dust.

Aruna

  • Short-tailed aruna Myiornis ecaudatus DOrbigny et Lafresnaye, 1837
  • Myiornis atricapillus Lawrence, 1875
  • White-breasted aruna Myiornis albivenbtris Berlepsch et Stolzmann, 1894
  • Long-eared aruna Myiornis auricularis Vieillot, 1818

Article source:

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