Bird Families

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The fire velvet weaver (Euplectes orix) is a species of birds from the genus Velvet weavers (Euplectes), the Weaver family (Ploceidae).

Body length 12-14 cm, females are slightly smaller than males. Both sexes resemble house sparrows in color of their usual plumage. The main color is brown, on the back there are dark stripes, on the belly there are light gray shades. But during the mating season, males of the fiery velvet weaver are covered with elegant plumage. It turns bright orange or scarlet, with the exception of the front of the head and abdomen, which turn black. The wings and tail remain brown.

They feed mainly on grass seeds, sometimes insects.

They live in colonies. Found in South Africa, Botswana, Namibia, Zimbabwe and Mozambique. However, they nest exclusively on the territory of a large dry lake in the Etosha National Park. Their habitat is open areas and wide savannas, where they are usually found near water.

Description

These are the largest representatives of the weaver family. The appearance varies greatly depending on the season. Females are of inconspicuous sandy-black color. Males during the mating season are pitch-black, with a long (up to two body lengths) deeply cut tail and red-white markings on the shoulders that never disappear. In the rest of the year - feathers are brown with black spots, the tail becomes short. Males are 16-19 cm long (with a tail - up to 60 cm), weighing 25-45 grams. Females - 12-14 cm. Male beak is conical, strong, gray with a blue tint. The legs are black. Females are brown.

Vocabulary

Vocabulary
WoW for Russian players initially existed only in foreign languages, since the native language of the game is English, many terms to this day are formed from the English names of well-established mechanics and many abilities.

AoE - (from the English. Area of ​​Effect) literally - this is the area on which the effect occurs, whether damage is done in this area, or healing is done - it does not matter. Usually this abbreviation is used as a team to deal damage with a group / raid on multiple targets. It is also used to describe a boss's ability with the above effect.

Buff - positive effect. By default, it is displayed to the left of the minimap along its top edge.

Burst - (from the English Burst), an ability that allows you to inflict a large amount of damage in a short time in various ways.

Gear - (from the English Gear) is essentially equipment.

GKD - (short for Global Cooldown) is the total cooldown of abilities.

Debuff - negative effect. By default, it is displayed to the left of the minimap along its bottom edge.

DoT - (from the English Damage over Time) is an effect that deals damage over time

DPS - (from English DPS - Damage per Second) is a value that displays damage per second.

Cleve - (from the English Cleave) the ability to inflict damage to secondary targets, through causing damage to the main target while not having a loss (or with minimal loss) to the main one.

Cooldown - (from the English Cooldown, you can often find the abbreviation "CD", or "kdshki"), the main meaning is the cooldown of the ability. Also often used in relation to bursts or various defensive abilities.

Miles and Range Zone - (from the English Melee and Ranged, respectively) Miles - means a melee zone, also used for the name of all classes / specs that inflict effective damage directly in this zone. Range (you can also find "range") - usually means a zone that is not a melee zone, and, accordingly, is also used to name all classes / specs that can effectively deal damage from a distance.

Overheal - ineffective healing, which went beyond 100% of the target's health.

- (from English Trait) the name of the “talents” of your Azerite armor.

HPS - (from the English. HPS - Healing per Second) This is the amount of healing done per second.

To the table of contents

Reproduction

Sexual behavior is due to the herd lifestyle of birds. In the spring, during the breeding season, males perform a ritual of attracting females, slowly circling over their territory, fluffing their tail. Reproduction is polygamous, from November to February. In a family, there are up to 5 females per male. The nest is built by either parent on the ground, from grasses and branches, it is a thick-walled oval structure. The brood usually contains from one to four eggs. After 12-14 days of incubation, chicks hatch, which are in the care of their parents for about 17 days. Often the nests of long-tailed velvet weavers become the object of parasitism of the Bronze cuckoo, replacing the eggs of velvet weavers with its own.

Big bird of paradise

Many representatives of the family of birds of paradise have bizarre plumage. However, few can match the large bird of paradise (Paradisaea apoda). The plumage of males of this species is dark brown in color, with a yellow crown, a dark emerald green throat, and a blackish brown breast. They have large yellow plumes on their sides and a pair of long tail wire feathers.

Females are also dark brown with a darker head and lighter abdomen and a yellow or white beak. These birds feed mainly on fruits, seeds and small insects. The length of the Great Birds of Paradise can reach 43 cm. It is not for nothing that they are called big!

Notes (edit)

  1. Boehme R.L., Flint V.E.
    A five-language dictionary of animal names. Birds. Latin, Russian, English, German, French / Edited by Acad. V.E.Sokolova. - M .: Rus. lang., "RUSSO", 1994. - P. 450. - 2030 copies. - ISBN 5-200-00643-0.
  2. [www.birdforum.net/opus/Long-tailed_Widowbird Birdforum - Long-tailed Widowbird]
  3. [www.oiseaux.net/oiseaux/euplecte.a.longue.queue.html Oiceaux.net - Euplecte a longue queue] (French)
  4. [www.biodiversityexplorer.org/birds/ploceidae/euplectes_progne.htm biodiversityexplorer - Euplectes progne]

Pennant-tailed hummingbird

Even the smallest birds will go to great lengths to show off their fancy tails. The pennant-tailed hummingbird (Trochilus polytmus) is one such bird. Sometimes this bird is also called "scissor-tailed hummingbird". The reason for the alternate name is obvious.

Males sport tail feathers ranging from six to 18 centimeters long, while their bodies are only about 11.5 centimeters long. When the bird flies, the ribbon-like tail feathers hover and emit a buzzing sound. This species is the national bird of Jamaica.

Excerpt from the Long-Tailed Velvet Weaver

- Do you understand what you are saying? - he said in a trembling voice, - except me there was no one in the room. Therefore, if not, so ... He could not finish and ran out of the room. “Ah, chog’t with you and everyone,” were the last words that Rostov heard. Rostov came to Telyanin's apartment. “The master is not at home, we have left for the headquarters,” Telyanin's orderly told him. - Or what happened? Added the orderly, surprised at the cadet's upset face. - There is nothing. “We missed a bit,” said the orderly. The headquarters was located three versts from Salzeneck. Rostov, without going home, took the horse and rode to the headquarters. In the village occupied by the headquarters, there was a tavern visited by officers. Rostov arrived at the tavern, at the porch he saw Telyanin's horse. In the second room of the inn the lieutenant was sitting at a platter of sausages and a bottle of wine. “Oh, and you stopped by, young man,” he said, smiling and raising his eyebrows high. “Yes,” said Rostov, as if it took a lot of effort to pronounce the word, and sat down at the next table. Both were silent, two Germans and one Russian officer were sitting in the room. Everyone was silent, and the sounds of knives on plates and the sound of the lieutenant's champing were heard. When Telyanin finished breakfast, he took out of his pocket a double purse, parted the rings with small white fingers curved upward, took out a gold one and, raising his eyebrows, gave the money to the servant. “Please hurry,” he said. The gold one was new. Rostov got up and went up to Telyanin. “Let me see the wallet,” he said in a low, barely audible voice. With shifting eyes, but still raised eyebrows, Telyanin handed over the purse. - Yes, a pretty wallet ... Yes ... yes ... - he said and suddenly turned pale. “Look, young man,” he added. Rostov took the purse in his hands and looked at it, and at the money that was in it, and at Telyanin. The lieutenant looked around, according to his habit, and, it seemed, suddenly became very cheerful. “If we’re in Vienna, I’ll leave everything there, and now there’s nowhere to go in these crappy little towns,” he said. - Well, come on, young man, I'll go. Rostov was silent. - What about you? have breakfast too? They are decently fed, - continued Telyanin. - Let's go. He reached out and took hold of the wallet. Rostov released him. Telyanin took the wallet and began to lower it into the pocket of his leggings, and his eyebrows were carelessly raised, and his mouth opened slightly, as if he were saying: "Yes, yes, I put my wallet in my pocket, and it's very simple, and nobody cares about this." ... - Well, what, young man? He said, sighing and looking into Rostov's eyes from under raised eyebrows. Some kind of light from the eyes, with the speed of an electric spark, ran from Telyanin's eyes to Rostov's eyes and back, back and forth, all in an instant. “Come here,” said Rostov, grabbing Telyanin by the hand. He almost dragged him to the window. - This is Denisov's money, you took it ... - he whispered over his ear. - What? ... What? ... How dare you? What? ... - said Telyanin. But these words sounded like a plaintive, desperate cry and a plea for forgiveness. As soon as Rostov heard this sound of a voice, a huge stone of doubt fell from his soul. He felt joy and at the same instant he felt sorry for the unfortunate man standing in front of him, but he had to complete the work he had begun. “Here, God knows what they might think,” Telyanin muttered, grabbing his cap and heading into a small empty room, “we need to explain ...

Lifestyle

Weavers cannot be called tied to any specific living conditions. They can live on plains and in the mountains, inhabit forest edges and steppes, meet in deserts and on river or swampy banks, and even live next to people in cities and on agricultural land.

The weaver is a schooling bird. Moreover, the number of individuals included in the flock can range from several tens to several million, as, for example, among public or red-billed weavers. When offspring appears in such a flock, then its number can be about 40 million individuals.

These are the largest concurrent flocks of birds known to modern science.

Similar and even more, flocks had only wandering pigeons, which at the moment, unfortunately, are considered an extinct species.

The weaver bird flies quickly, writing sharp pirouettes in the air, while often flapping its wings.

Although these birds belong to the suborder of songbirds, their cries are not euphonic in all species and are more like creaking and clicking than singing. Although some weavers, for example, from the genus of paradise widows and finches, are able to imitate the trills of other birds. And weavers are surprisingly mobile and very interesting to watch them, perhaps that is why some lovers domesticate these birds and teach them to live in captivity.

Weavers' nests

Weaver is a talented architect and builder of nesting colonies. From their nests, whole huge canvases and intricate man-made masterpieces are obtained.

Moreover, the appearance of the weaver's nest, as a rule, depends on the variety of this bird, and each of the species shows building talents in its own way. The birds sometimes build their nests so close to each other that sometimes they even merge into single architectural ensembles.

Alternating loops and tight puffs, moreover, in a strictly defined way, such birds create whole patterned structures of the most diverse forms:

  • balls-baskets (such structures are erected, for example, by representatives of the mask and fire varieties of weavers),

  • long stockings (they are knitted by baya weavers),

  • huge grass stacksintricately entwining whole trees (created by community weavers)

All this is attached to the branches of tree vegetation or to the stalks of reeds, being suspended in the air, that is, located between the sky and the earth. But more about the technology of nesting later, and now a little about what these creatures look like.

Food

The diet consists of either only plant or plant and animal feed. The birds feed on berries, seeds, flowers and buds, as well as insects. Chicks are fed mainly by insects.

Their food can also be a variety of grain crops, which they find in abundance, in the fields cultivated by man, which are their favorite way of obtaining food.

Numerous flocks of birds are capable of causing indescribable harm to the grain harvest, annually destroying thousands and thousands of tons of grain.

The time for active searches and foraging for birds, especially in hot weather, is usually the first half of the day and the pre-sunset period. Striving to the source of food, the weaver flies out into the fields with the first ray of the sun and searches for food until noon, and in the evening returns to places full of the desired food.

Big lyre bird

Best of all about the big bird-lyre (Menura novaehollandiae) says the literal translation of its English name - "magnificent lyrebird", because her tail feathers are amazing. Males take about seven years to grow their tail to maximum beauty.

To showcase his stunning feathers, the male of this Australian bird unfolds 16 tail feathers over his head, forming a kind of canopy. But even without this posturing, the tail of the lyre bird is a miracle of natural beauty.

Long-tailed royal tyrant

The long-tailed royal tyrant (Tyrannus forficatus) is also sometimes called the Texas bird of paradise. Both males and females have long tails, but females' tails are generally 30% shorter.

They usually like to sit outdoors, such as on barbed wire fences. Tyrannas can be easily recognized by their extremely long tails, which also help them perform acrobatic numbers in pursuit of insects.

Peacock

The peacock (Pavo Linnaeus) is the bird with the most beautiful tail of all birds. This bird is known all over the world for its fan of rainbow tail feathers, which make up 60% of its total body length.

The peacock has not only long feathers that boast an "eye" at the end. The tail also features a set of 20 smaller tail feathers that help support other feathers when the bird shows its tail.

While colorful display is an essential component of peacocks' appeal, there is also a subspecies of the white peacock, which has all white feathers. These are not albino birds, but just a genetic mutation that makes them white and they produce white offspring. Perhaps this is even for the best: so they are very similar to fabulous birds.

Writing the phrase "fire velvet weaver" in transliteration

How is this phrase spelled in transliteration.

ognenny barkhatny tkach

How is this phrase written in the English Qwerty keyboard layout.

j u y t y y s q, f h [f n y s q n r f x

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Fire weaver (Euplectes franciscanus)

Message Gularis »Apr 30, 2015 10:01 pm


Fireweaver (Euplectes franciscanus)

At the time of breeding, the male fire weaver is colored extremely effectively. The forehead, crown, cheeks, sides of the body and abdomen are coal-black. The entire neck, chest, uppertail and undertail are of a bright orange-red color. The back is reddish brown. The wings are brown. Feathers on them have light edges. The beak is black. In non-breeding time, the male has a modest female coloration: the upper side of the body is dark brown, with dark streaks, and the underside is whitish, with a slight brownish tint on the chest and sides. Above the eyes, there are wide light stripes - the so-called eyebrows. Horn-colored beak and legs. The length of the bird is 11.5-12 centimeters.
Two subspecies of the fire weaver are known, the representatives of which differ mainly in the size of the body. One of the subspecies inhabits a vast territory stretching from the western, Atlantic, coast of Africa along the latitudes of Senegal and northern regions of Cameroon to the east to the Darfur plateau in Sudan, and also meridionally along the Nile Valley to the south to Uganda. Another subspecies, representatives of which are distinguished by a smaller body size, is common in Somalia and Ethiopia.

The fire weaver has been known to Western European lovers since the beginning of the 19th century. During the period of getting used to captivity, these birds must certainly be in a warm room. At this time, it is recommended to keep them in a spacious cage or small aviary, and several individuals together. Usually, females are more difficult than males to adapt to new living conditions and often die in the very first weeks after being caught. But the birds that have safely overcome this critical period live almost always for a long time: up to ten and even sometimes up to sixteen years.
The more varied the feed for the weavers, the better. In addition to a mixture of different varieties of small and large millet with the addition of canary seed, these weavers are given soft food made up of grated carrots, crushed rusks and a hard-boiled chicken egg (preferably with the addition of ant pupae). Birds should be given, in addition, a lot of flour crustaceans larvae, greens, semi-ripe seeds of cereals and weeds.

It is useful to mix fresh bee honey into drinking water. With insufficient feeding and a lack of direct sunlight, the weaver's bright, fiery color fades over time, becoming faded, yellowish.
Living in good conditions, these birds can reproduce successfully. Due to the fact that they are polygamous, it is recommended to keep only one male with two or three females in a large separate cage or in an aviary. As a rule, the male builds the nests. Often he tries to do this, even without having a suitable place to build, and therefore simply braids the lattice or rods of the cage with grass blades. In the presence of dense branches, the weaver makes a nest on them, but sometimes uses an artificial nest - a basket or a half-open house, as well as other people's nests, while throwing out the clutch of the owners of the nest from there. Usually, the male builds several nests, and the females, at their own discretion, choose from them those that they like best. There are 2-3 blue eggs in a clutch. Only the female incubates them. Chicks hatch in 13-14 days. They fly out of the nest at the age of 14-18 days. After that, for at least three more weeks, the parents continue to feed the chicks. At the Leningrad amateur Yu. R. Shveikovsky's, a female fire weaver laid eggs in a wicker basket with a side hole, attached to the wall of the cage almost under its very ceiling and lined with dry grass. Unfortunately, the bird incubated so poorly that the eggs had to be transferred to the nest of the Japanese finch. Fireweaver chicks hatched, but the finches did not feed them. The same thing happened with the second brood, although this time two pairs of Japanese finches were tried at once, before that they perfectly fed chicks of various species of finch weavers, even in large mixed broods. However, these "well-deserved" nurses killed the chicks of the fire weaver too. This happened for the reason that the finches could not adapt to the peculiarities of the food reaction of the chicks of this species, completely different from that of the finches. However, on the third time, the female fire weaver, at last, herself safely hatched and reared two chicks.

Fireweaver chicks are naked, with only a few barely noticeable downs on the crown and back. On their wings, a dark longitudinal strip of pigmented skin was noticeable. Begging for food, the chicks pulled up slightly trembling heads on long thin necks and even raised themselves well on widely spaced legs. The mother fed everyone, bending towards him from the entrance and not entering the nest, and only then she just jumped inside and sat on the chicks to warm them. Every 10-15 minutes, the female flew to the feeders and greedily grabbed ant pupae, larvae and pupae of flour beetle, a hard-boiled chicken egg with crackers, sprouted millet, bloodworms. She did not let the male into the nest - she pecked him right on the cheeks when he tried to look there. All the time while the chicks were in the nest, the female regularly carried their droppings, throwing it at the other end of the cage.

The chicks left the nest after 14 days. At first, they stayed at the bottom of the cage, and two days later they began to quite confidently flip from perch to perch, without fear they sat on the finger put by a man. It is interesting that the female during the entire breeding period was completely calm about the presence of people. The mother fed the flying chicks no longer with belching, as in the nest, but with whole larvae of flour beetle, though previously killed, by bloodworms and refined millet grain. If the chick did not open his mouth in time, she hurried him, poking her beak into the corners of his mouth. 8-9 days after the chicks left the nest, their first attempts to feed on their own could be observed. The female behaved in an interesting way, already laying new eggs in the nest at that time. Seeing that one of the chicks, taking the larva of flour crush, clumsily holds it across the body and tries in vain to swallow the prey, she flew up to him, snatched the "worm" and deftly thrust it into the baby's beak as it should, that is, with the head end forward. But even then the mother was in no hurry to fly away. She waited for the chick to swallow its food, strictly following the protruding feathers on its neck as this large prey slid down the esophagus. In the first days of incubating a new clutch, the female still continued to feed the chicks, but soon she was replaced by the male, who brought the matter to an end.
This pair of weavers nestled in a cage measuring 120x50x70 centimeters.

Color features

The long-tailed velvet weaver is a medium-sized bird and one of the most common in the area where it lives. The body length of the male is 16-19 cm (with a tail up to 60 cm). Its conical beak is bluish-white. The velvet weaver, namely the male, has two types of coloration. The adult male, during the mating season, is almost entirely black with orange-red shoulders that resemble shoulder straps. And the rest of the time it is an inconspicuous brown bird with black spots and a short tail, but bright "epaulettes" are always preserved.

Original decoration

The main beauty, the original decoration of this weaver (male) is a long wide tail, which, during flight, curls like a velvet black ribbon. It is because of such a tail that this bird received an unusual name. Taking a closer look at its plumage, you can see that the longest feather (about 50 cm) is located between the sixth and eighth of the twelve tail feathers. The tail during flight is displayed vertically into a deep long keel below the male. It is because of its beauty, or rather because of its tail, that the velvet weaver flies slowly and is easy to see from afar. And in rainy weather this male cannot take off at all, because his long tail is wet and heavy. Naturally, many predators use this, and the velvet weaver becomes an easy prey. But this male is also quickly noticed by females during the mating season and prefer to flirt with such a handsome man.

Female color

About the long-tailed widow female, we can say that she is a "gray mouse", as she is rather inconspicuous. The color of its upper body is sandy black, the feathers are painted with thin and black stripes, and the plumage on the chest is much lighter with pale spots. The tail feathers of the female are narrow and short, the body length is 12-14 cm. It has a conical cream-colored beak. On the one hand, this unsightly female is lost against the background of a black-velvet handsome man, and on the other hand, it is very difficult to find her among the yellow grass and faded leaves.

Features of young males

Young males are slightly larger than females, although they are surprisingly similar to each other. For the most part, these males are colored the same as the females, except that they are more broadly carved at the top and bottom and have white shoulders. Sometimes young velvet weavers have elongated brown-black tail feathers, although these feathers are significantly shorter than that of adult males. And the female chooses a mate with a long tail.

Photo by Derek Keats

Features of young males

Young males are slightly larger than females, although they are surprisingly similar to each other. For the most part, these males are colored the same as the females, except that they are more broadly carved at the top and bottom and have white shoulders. Sometimes young velvet weavers have elongated brown-black tail feathers, although these feathers are significantly shorter than that of adult males. And the female chooses a mate with a long tail.

Photo by Derek Keats

Charles Darwin on the long-tailed velvet weaver

Exploring the long-tailed velvet weaver, Charles Darwin first expounded his ideas about female mate selection in his book The Origin of Species by Natural Selection in 1871. Answering questions related to the original coloration of this bird, the researcher highlighted the difficult survival and poor reproduction of the long-tailed widow due to the long tail. Charles Darwin offered two explanations for the existence of such traits: these color traits are useful in the struggle between males, or are preferred by females.

Experiment by researcher Malte Andersson

It was ninety years after Darwin's initial proposal when the theory was tested. The researchers decided to focus their females experiment on the convoluted example of a long-tailed widow.

Malte Andersson and his colleagues changed the length of the tails in males and studied their mating. At the beginning of the breeding season, thirty-six males were selected and used by the experimenters as their own controls. The number of nests on the territory of each male before the start of the experiment was also taken into account from the total number of nests after the end of the study. In this experiment, males of the same color were divided into nine groups of four birds each. These groups were similar in territory and tail length. The tail of one randomly selected male within each group was trimmed to a length of about 14 cm. Each feather removed was then glued to the corresponding feather of a larger other male, lengthening its tail by another 20-30 centimeters. The other two males in the group were control, that is, their tails remained unchanged. As a result, a clear picture of success emerged, with males with elongated tails being the most successful, followed by males with control (normal tails) and then males with shortened tails. The result showed that adult females prefer mates with long tails and orange-red epaulettes. Andersson's experiment confirmed that female long-tailed velvet weavers preferred supernatural tails, as males with elongated tails were the most successful in terms of reproduction. Thus, the tail is used to attract females rather than direct competition among males.

One explanation for why females prefer long tails on males is that a flared tail increases the male's lateral surface area by a factor of 2 to 3, making it much more visible from far away over open ground. However, this is most likely not the whole explanation, especially considering that before mating, females spend a lot of time comparing males and thus do not rely on long-range sights. At the moment, the exact function of the bright "epaulettes" in male long-tailed velvet weavers is unknown, so the researchers have something to work on.

Conservation status

The long-tailed widow has a very wide range of distribution and therefore does not come close to the extinction thresholds. The number of these birds is stable and this is good news, since the long-tailed velvet weaver is of great benefit and plays an important role in nature.

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